Sasha (Alexandra) Aikhenvald's Linguistics Research

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Manambu Grammar Publication - Contents Overview

1 Introduction: The Language and its Speakers (pdf 418 kb)

  • 1.1 Linguistic type
  • 1.2 The Manambu: the present and the past
    • 1.2.1 Environment and subsistence
    • 1.2.2 The Manambu villages
    • 1.2.3 Dwelling patterns: the structure of villages
    • 1.2.4 Houses and their structure
  • 1.3 Social organization, kinship, and name ownership
    • 1.3.1 Clan membership, kinship, and mortuary ritual
    • 1.3.2 Name ownership and name debates
  • 1.4 Relationships with neighbours and recent history
    • 1.4.1 Indigenous neighbours and traditional warfare
    • 1.4.2 Relationships with outsiders
  • 1.5 Linguistic affiliation and prehistory
    • 1.5.1 The Ndu language family
    • 1.5.2 The varieties of Manambu
    • 1.5.3 Origins and putative prehistory
  • 1.6 Linguistic situation
  • 1.7 What we know about the Manambu language
  • 1.8 Basis for this study
  • Appendix 1.1 Early documentation of Manambu

2 Phonology

  • 2.1 Segmental phonology
    • 2.1.1 Consonants
    • 2.1.2 Vowels
    • 2.1.3 Unusual phonetic patterns
  • 2.2 Syllable structure
    • 2.2.1 Syllable types
    • 2.2.2 Vowel sequences and diphthongs
  • 2.3 Stress
    • 2.3.1 Stress assignment
    • 2.3.2 Stress shift
  • 2.4 Phonological structure of morphemes, and syllable weight
    • 2.4.1 Phonological structure of verbal and non-verbal roots
    • 2.4.2 Syllable weight and evidence for iambic stress in verbs
  • 2.5 Phonological word
    • 2.5.1 General properties
    • 2.5.2 When one grammatical word corresponds to more than one phonological word
    • 2.5.3 When two or three grammatical words form one phonological word
  • 2.6 Phonological processes
  • 2.7 Intonation patterns

3 Grammatical Relations

  • 3.1 Cross-referencing
  • 3.2 Grammatical relations marked on noun phrases
  • 3.3 ‘Reactivated topic’ demonstratives
  • 3.4 Grammatical relations in Manambu: a summary

4 Word Classes

  • 4.1 Nouns
    • 4.1.1 Morphophonological subclasses of nouns
    • 4.1.2 Semantically and grammatically determined subclasses of nouns
  • 4.2 Verbs
    • 4.2.1 Verbal grammatical categories
    • 4.2.2 Semantically and grammatically determined subclasses of verbs
  • 4.3 Adjectives
    • 4.3.1 Agreeing and non-agreeing adjectives
    • 4.3.2 Adjectives in comparison with nouns and verbs
    • 4.3.3 Semantics of adjectives
  • 4.4 Adverbs
  • 4.5 Closed classes
    • 4.5.1 Modal words
    • 4.5.2 Postpositions
    • 4.5.3 Particles and connectives
    • 4.5.4 Interjections and onomatopoeia
    • 4.5.5 ‘Pro-sentences’
    • 4.5.6 Word class assignment of loans and code-switches

5 Gender Marking, Semantics, and Agreement

  • 5.1 Gender and number agreement: contexts and forms
    • 5.1.1 Agreement contexts
    • 5.1.2 Gender and number agreement forms
    • 5.1.3 Additional gender and number forms
    • 5.1.4 Functions of gender and number agreement
  • 5.2 How to choose a gender: semantics, and markedness relationships
    • 5.2.1 The semantics of gender choice
    • 5.2.2 Mismatches in gender agreement
    • 5.2.3 Markedness relations
  • 5.3 Overt gender marking

6 Number

  • 6.1 Number marking on nouns
  • 6.2 Number agreement
    • 6.2.1 Number agreement with mass and collective referents
    • 6.2.2 Agreement with associative non-singular
    • 6.2.3 ‘Argument elaboration’ constructions, and number agreement
    • 6.2.4 Markedness in the number system


7 Case Marking

  • 7.1 Formation of cases: an overview
  • 7.2 Functions of a noun unmarked for case
  • 7.3 Accusative-locative case
  • 7.4 Dative-aversive case
  • 7.5 Allative and instrumental cases
  • 7.6 Terminative case
  • 7.7 Transportative cases
  • 7.8 Substitutive case
  • 7.9 Comitative case
  • 7.10 Summary: how many cases does Manambu have?
  • 7.11 Case morphology on verbs

8 Possession

  • 8.1 Possessive noun phrases, their functions and semantics
    • 8.1.1 Possessive noun phrases
    • 8.1.2 Possessive noun phrases in Manambu: a comparison
  • 8.2 Predicative possessive constructions, and possessor cross-referencing
    • 8.2.1 Verb ‘have’
    • 8.2.2 Identification construction
    • 8.2.3 Possessor cross-referencing on the verb

9 Derivation and Compounding

  • 9.1 Word class-changing derivations
    • 9.1.1 Full reduplication of verbal root and its functions
    • 9.1.2 Other nominalizations and an adjectivizing derivation
  • 9.2 Non-word class-changing derivations
  • 9.3 Compounding

10 Closed Classes

  • 10.1 Personal pronouns
  • 10.2 Demonstratives
    • 10.2.1 Nominal demonstratives
    • 10.2.2 Manner adverbial demonstratives
    • 10.2.3 ‘Reactivated topic’ demonstratives
  • 10.3 Indefinites
  • 10.4 Interrogatives
  • 10.5 Quantifiers
  • 10.6 Numerals
    • 10.6.1 Numerals from one to ten
    • 10.6.2 Numerals higher than ten
  • 10.7 Closed classes: an overview

11 Predicate Structure and Verb Root Types

  • 11.1 Verbal categories and verb structure
    • 11.1.1 Inflected and uninflected verbs
    • 11.1.2 The structure of verbal predicate
  • 11.2 The structure of non-verbal predicate heads
  • 11.3 Root alternations in verbs
    • 11.3.1 Automatic alternations in verbs
    • 11.3.2 Other root-specific alternations in verbs

12 Verbal Categories in Positive Declarative and Interrogative Clauses

  • 12.1 Non-future tenses and action focus
    • 12.1.1 Non-future tenses
    • 12.1.2 Action focus
  • 12.2 Future
  • 12.3 Habitual aspect
  • 12.4 Complete involvement of S/O
  • 12.5 Confirmation marker
  • 12.6 Completive aspect
  • 12.7 Customary aspect
  • 12.8 Expressing intensive, continuous, and repeated actions
    • 12.8.1 Derivational suffixes -r@b ‘fully’ and -d@ka ‘only’ on verbs
    • 12.8.2 Reduplication of the verb root
    • 12.8.3 Repetition of the verb


13 Mood and Modality

  • 13.1 Overview
  • 13.2 Imperative
    • 13.2.1 Formal aspects of imperative
    • 13.2.2 Semantics of imperative
    • 13.2.3 Optative modality
  • 13.3 Irrealis
  • 13.4 Purposive
    • 13.4.1 Same-subject purposive
    • 13.4.2 Different-subject purposive
    • 13.4.3 Same-subject and different-subject purposive: a comparison
  • 13.5 Desiderative
  • 13.6 Frustrative
  • 13.7 Nominalizations marked with dative-aversive case
  • 13.8 Summary

14 Negation

  • 14.1 Negation of declarative non-habitual clauses
    • 14.1.1 Negation of verbal predicates
    • 14.1.2 Negation of non-verbal predicates
    • 14.1.3 Contiguity in non-future negative constructions, and the scope of negation
  • 14.2 Negation of habitual clauses
  • 14.3 Negation of non-indicative modalities
    • 14.3.1 Negation of irrealis and optative
    • 14.3.2 Negation of same-subject purposive and of desiderative
    • 14.3.3 Negation of nominalizations
  • 14.4 Negative imperative
    • 14.4.1 Non-first person negative imperatives
    • 14.4.2 Third person negative imperatives
  • 14.5 Negation of dependent clauses, questions, and focus structures
    • 14.5.1 Negating dependent clauses
    • 14.5.2 Negating questions
    • 14.5.3 The negator -ma:r- in independent clauses
  • 14.6 Inherently negative lexemes and negative pro-clauses
  • 14.7 Summary

15 Verb Compounding

  • 15.1 An overview
  • 15.2 Symmetrical compounds
    • 15.2.1 Sequencing compounds
    • 15.2.2 Manner compounds
    • 15.2.3 Cause-effect and manner compounds
    • 15.2.4 Fully lexicalized idiomatic compounds
  • 15.3 Asymmetrical compounds
    • 15.3.1 Major verb precedes minor verb
    • 15.3.2 Minor verb precedes major verb
  • 15.4 Combinations of verb compounds
  • 15.5 Reduplication in compounds
  • 15.6 Summary

16 Directionals and Valency-Changing Devices

  • 16.1 Directionals
    • 16.1.1 Formal aspects of directionals
    • 16.1.2 Directionals: semantics and functions
    • 16.1.3 Bound directionals and directional suffixes: a comparison
    • 16.1.4 How directionals co-occur
    • 16.1.5 Directionals on verbs and on demonstratives: similar systems, different pathways
  • 16.2 Valency-changing devices
    • 16.2.1 Morphological means for marking valency increase
    • 16.2.2 Biclausal causative strategies
    • 16.2.3 Transitivity-neutralizing construction
    • 16.2.4 Reciprocal-associative, and reflexives

17 Complex Predicates

  • 17.1 Complex predicates containing auxiliaries
    • 17.1.1 Aspectual and positional complex predicates
    • 17.1.2 Imminent modality
  • 17.2 Complex predicates containing support verbs
    • 17.2.1 Support verbs with uninflected verbs and deverbal nominalizations
    • 17.2.2 Support verbs with loan verbs
    • 17.2.3 Support verbs with nominals, onomatopoeia, and expressives
    • 17.2.4 How to choose a support verb for a nominal
  • 17.3 Lexicalized complex predicates
  • 17.4 Body part constructions as complex predicates
  • 17.5 Transitivity-neutralizing constructions involving clause chaining
  • 17.6 Comparison of complex predicates

18 Clause Linking and Dependent Clauses

  • 18.1 Clause linking and dependent clauses: an overview
  • 18.2 Sequencing -n
  • 18.3 Completive -ku ‘same subject’/-k ‘different subject’
  • 18.4 Cotemporaneous clause marked with -ta:y
  • 18.5 Immediate sequence clause marked with -taka
  • 18.6 Temporal overlap marked with -k@b ‘as soon as’
  • 18.7 Causal clauses marked with -l@k
  • 18.8 Unlikely condition -ga:y
  • 18.9 Generic completive verb napa-
  • 18.10 Clause chaining and sentence structure


19 Other Dependent Clauses and Further Features of Clause Linking

  • 19.1 Juxtaposition of a dependent clause and a main clause
  • 19.2 Relative clauses
    • 19.2.1 Relative clauses with an inflected verb
    • 19.2.2 Verb-noun compounds as a relativization strategy
    • 19.2.3 Relative clauses and verb-noun compounds: a comparison
  • 19.3 Clause linking via case marker ‘instead’ and suffix ‘like’
  • 19.4 Purposive and desiderative clauses
    • 19.4.1 Purposive clauses
    • 19.4.2 Desiderative clauses
  • 19.5 Speech reports
    • 19.5.1 Speech report constructions and their properties
    • 19.5.2 Direct speech reports
    • 19.5.3 Reported commands as indirect speech reports
    • 19.5.4 Semi-direct speech reports
    • 19.5.5 Syntactic role of speech reports
    • 19.5.6 Polysemous patterns in speech reports
  • 19.6 Clause linking involving connectives
  • 19.7 Juxtaposition of main clauses
  • 19.8 Complementation strategies
  • 19.9 Desubordination of dependent clauses

20 Clause Types and Discourse-Pragmatic Devices

  • 20.1 Major constituents, clause types, and grammatical relations
    • 20.1.1 The structure of noun phrases
    • 20.1.2 The structure of complex predicates
    • 20.1.3 Clause types and their properties
    • 20.1.4 Grammatical relations: an overview
  • 20.2 Constituent order: its syntactic and pragmatic motivations
  • 20.3 Highlighting focus constructions
  • 20.4 Further issues in discourse organization
    • 20.4.1 Linking sentences
    • 20.4.2 Finalizing a paragraph and taking a break
    • 20.4.3 Ellipsis

21 Issues in Semantics and Features of Lexicon

  • 21.1 Verb semantics
    • 21.1.1 ‘Eating’, ‘drinking’, and ‘chewing’: ingestive verbs
    • 21.1.2 ‘Seeing’ and ‘hearing’
    • 21.1.3 Speech verbs
  • 21.2 Polysemy, specificity, and disambiguation: further features of the Manambu lexicon
    • 21.2.1 Specific notions in the Manambu lexicon
    • 21.2.2 How grammar helps disambiguate polysemy
    • 21.2.3 The polysemy of value terms
    • 21.2.4 The notion of ‘real’
    • 21.2.5 Generic verbs
  • 21.3 General noun and general verb
    • 21.3.1 The general noun ma:gw
    • 21.3.2 The ‘lazy’ verb
    • 21.3.3 Similarities and differences between the general noun and the ‘lazy’ verb
  • 21.4 ‘Body’ in the expression of emotions and mental processes
  • 21.5 Speech formulae, greetings, and farewells
    • 21.5.1 Manambu ‘small’ talk
    • 21.5.2 Imperatives in greetings
    • 21.5.3 Further greetings and tokens of ‘speech etiquette’
    • 21.5.4 How to address each other

22 Genetic and Areal Relationships, and New Developments in the Language

  • 22.1 Manambu as a Ndu language
  • 22.2 Discerning the effects of language contact: the Kwoma–Manambu relationship
    • 22.2.1 Linguistic diversity in the Sepik area of New Guinea
    • 22.2.2 Motivations for linguistic similarities
    • 22.2.3 Manambu and Kwoma
  • 22.3 Loans from Western Iatmul and elsewhere
  • 22.4 Influence of Tok Pisin and of English: borrowing and code-switching
    • 22.4.1 Borrowings or code-switches?
    • 22.4.2 Morphological and syntactic integration of Tok Pisin and English code-switches and calques
    • 22.4.3 Functions of code-switches and borrowings
  • 22.5 New developments in Manambu lexicon
  • 22.6 Incipient language obsolescence and perspectives for survival
    • 22.6.1 Signs of language obsolescence
    • 22.6.2 The ‘Manambu revival’ movement and perspectives for language survival
  • Appendix 22.1 Personal pronouns in Ndu languages
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Sasha (Alexandra) Aikhenvald

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